Maternal Mortality and the Global Health Divide
From Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide collection, lesson plan 1 of 5
Grade Levels: High School (11-12 grades), Community College, Youth Development Organizations
Time: One 90-minute period or two 50-minute periods plus assignments
Subject Areas: Women’s Studies, Social Studies, Global Studies, Media Studies, Health, English Language Arts
Purpose of the Lesson and Objectives:
Maternal mortality has been identified as a global crisis and the greatest health inequity of the 21st century. Ninety-nine percent of deaths occur in developing countries, with more than half in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one-third in South Asia. Underlying the medical causes of maternal death is a complex web of social, political, and economic forces that undermines women’s access to essential maternal healthcare and reproductive health information. A high maternal death rate indicates not only a country’s inadequate healthcare system, but also a violation of women’s fundamental rights to life and health.
Even within industrialized countries a disparity exists between maternal mortality rates for women in different communities. The health divide is especially apparent in the United States, where African American women are almost four times more likely to die during or soon after childbirth than Caucasian women. As a result, the United States’ average maternal mortality rate is relatively high at 1 in 4,100, making it more dangerous to give birth in the U.S. than in 40 other countries.
- Think about how maternal health affects their lives and learn why maternal health is a universal issue.
- Examine the global maternal health divide and understand the social, economic, and cultural factors that contribute to the differences in healthcare both between and within countries, including the United States.
- Consider maternal health’s impact on men as well as women and the ripple effects of maternal health on families and communities.
- Consider how gender-based discrimination undermines maternal health and contributes to maternal mortality.
- Identify Somaliland on a map and understand the nation’s social and political context.
- Examine the maternal mortality crisis through the lens of three case studies and work as a team to develop an action plan that could help women in similar situations by addressing the primary barriers to care.
- Demonstrate their understanding of the issue by working in groups to research the status of maternal healthcare in their community and develop an outreach and/or education campaign to raise awareness and advance the cause of maternal health.
Note for Teachers about the Maternal Mortality Lesson and Contents:
This lesson and the accompanying film module from Half The Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide directly and honestly address the challenging issue of maternal mortality, but the discussions and topics might be unsuitable for some audiences. Teachers should prepare for the lesson by thoroughly reading all the materials and watching the complete film module to determine if the topic and lesson are appropriate for their class. Teachers should also brief students in advance on the content and identify students who might be personally or adversely affected by it. Prior to launching the lesson, these students should receive appropriate support or the option of declining to participate. To prepare students and their families for this lesson, instruct students to complete HTS Student Handout A: Why Does Maternal Health Matter to Me? with their parents and/or guardians.
For additional information about the documentary Half The Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide and the global crisis of maternal health, please download the free Maternal Mortality Discussion Guide on the Women and Girls Lead website, visit the official transmedia project website, and read Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide by Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn.
Please note: Download teacher and student handouts in PDF format by clicking "Download lesson materials" at left
- Maternal Mortality in Somaliland film module (9:45 minutes)
- LCD projector or DVD player
- Teacher Handouts:
- Maternal Mortality Discussion Guide (Download Discussion Guide PDFs)
- Maternal Mortality Student Handouts:
- Maternal Health Glossary
- Student Handouts:
- Student Handout A: Why Does Maternal Health Matter to Me?
- Student Handout B: The Health Divide Q&A Cards and Worksheet
- Student Handout C: Somaliland in Context
- Student Handout D: Film module Screening Guide
- Student Handout E: Maternal Mortality Fact Sheet
- Student Handout F: Maternal Mortality Case Study
- Student Handout G: Case Study Action Plan
- Wall map of the world with country names (free printable maps are available here)
- Small green, yellow, and red Post-It Notes
- Whiteboard/blackboard and dry-erase markers/chalk
- Pens and writing paper
- Computers with Internet access
Standards: This lesson aligns to key Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies. For a full list of standards, please download the lesson materials above left.
Curriculum Writer: Allison Milewski
This curriculum is endorsed by the National Council for Social Studies. To learn more, visit socialstudies.org.
PRESCREENING ACTIVITY 1
Class Time: 10-15 minutes
You will need: Student Handout A: Why Does Maternal Health Matter to Me?, pens, whiteboard/blackboard, dry-erase markers/chalk
Goal: In preparation for the Maternal Mortality Lesson students will consider how the issue of maternal health has affected their own lives and discuss how this topic impacts everyone.
- Distribute one copy of the Student Handout A: Why Does Maternal Health Matter to Me? and instruct students to complete the worksheet as a take-home assignment.
- When students have completed Student Handout A, ask them to discuss their responses with a partner or as a small group using the following prompts as a guide.
(Note to teachers: Some students’ birth stories may involve trauma or may be unknown and/or inaccessible. Be sure to take this into consideration throughout this activity and have them focus their responses on Question #1 from the worksheet, if needed. They may also use this opportunity to journal or write privately about their birth story or how their experience of that story has shaped their understanding of maternity.)
- What are the similarities and differences in your stories?
- Which of the following supports and resources did the moms in each story have available to help them? Doctor, midwife or birth attendant, local hospital, medicine, transportation, health Insurance, family and friends
- How might the mother’s birth experience have been different if these supports and resources were unavailable to them?
- Have each group share the results of their discussion with the class and record the responses.
Variation: If time is limited, teachers can introduce the issue of maternal health by using the questions on the handout as a guide for a brief class discussion, then move directly to Prescreening Activity 2.
PRESCREENING ACTIVITY 2: THE HEALTH DIVIDE
Class Time: 25-30 minutes
You will need: Student Handout B: The Health Divide Q&A Cards or Worksheet, Student Handout C: Somaliland in Context, whiteboard/blackboard, dry-erase markers/chalk, small Post-It Notes in red, yellow, and green, and a wall map of the world with country names (free printable maps are available here)
Goal: The greatest health divide in the world today is the global disparity in maternal healthcare, which has resulted in the extremely high maternal mortality rates in developing countries — especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. In preparation for viewing the Maternal Mortality in Somaliland film module, students will examine the maternal health divide and discuss the possible social, cultural, and economic causes, and consequences of this crisis.
- Cut out and randomly distribute Teacher Handout B v1: The Health Divide Q&A Cards to each student in the class. Half the cards contain questions, and the other half contain answers to those questions.
- Give students three to five minutes to circulate and identify the person who had the question or answer that relates to their fact.
- Variation: If time is limited, the Health Divide Q&A also exists as a worksheet so that students may work with a partner or group to match the answers with each question. Distribute Teacher Handout B v2: The Health Divide Q&A Worksheet and keep a printout of Teacher Handout A: The Health Divide Q&A Cards to reference the correct answers.
- Each pair should verify that the country and fact match and then share their information, followed by a class discussion using the prompts below. Once they have shared their fact, have them find their country on the map and place a small Post-It Note square to indicate the quality of maternal health (green=very good, yellow=needs improvement, red=maternal health crisis).
- What expectations did you have about the countries or facts you were given?
- Did you have any assumptions about the maternal health status in different parts of the world? Were your assumptions correct?
- What patterns, if any, do you notice emerging from these facts? (Example: similarities or differences in regions, the relationship between health benefits and maternal mortality rates, indicators of maternal health challenges, etc.)
- What surprised you most?
- Share the following information with your class:
Maternal mortality is a global crisis. At least one woman dies from complications related to pregnancy or childbirth every minute, and 99 percent of these deaths occur in developing countries, with more than half in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one-third in South Asia.
For a woman in a developing country, giving birth can be one of the biggest threats to her life. In poor countries, pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death while in industrialized countries, maternal deaths are far less common. In Nigeria 1-in-18 women die from pregnancy-related causes and in Somaliland the situation is even more dangerous, with one woman in 12 dying during or soon after childbirth. In comparison, the mortality rate in Japan is one in 16,666, and in Italy, a remarkably low one in 20,000.
Even within industrialized countries disparity exists between maternal mortality rates for women in different communities. The health divide is especially apparent in the United States, where African American women are almost four times more likely to die during or soon after childbirth than Caucasian women. As a result, The United States’ average maternal mortality rate is relatively high at 1 in 4,100, making it more dangerous to give birth in the U.S. than in over 40 other countries.
- Follow with a discussion using the questions below as a guide and record the results. This can be a class discussion or students can break into pairs or small groups. (This is a diagnostic discussion and brainstorming session, and the students’ feedback will be revisited after the screening.)
- What factors do you think contribute to the disparity in women’s health care in different areas of the world and within different communities? (Discuss possible social, cultural, political, and economic factors.)
- What impact do you think the lack of access to care has on individual women, their families, and their communities?
- Have you seen any news coverage on this issue? If so, what was it? If not, why do you think the maternal mortality crisis has not been a media priority?
- Is access to healthcare a right or a privilege? What does the maternal mortality crisis tell us about the status of women in the world?
- Finally, share the following quote with your students and have them discuss what they think Mahmoud Fathalla meant by his statement: “Women are not dying because of diseases we cannot treat.... They are dying because societies have yet to make the decision that their lives are worth saving.” — Mahmoud Fathalla, former President of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics
- In preparation for viewing the film module, ask students to locate Somaliland on a wall map.
- Provide the class with Student Handout C: Somaliland in Context. Have them read the fact sheet, and discuss briefly with a partner, or have a volunteer(s) read the fact sheet aloud and discuss as a class.
VIEWING THE FILM MODULE
Class Time: 10-15 minutes
You will need: pens and writing paper, LCD projector or DVD player, Maternal Mortality in Somaliland film module, Student Handout D: Film module Screening Guide, Maternal Mortality Glossary
Distribute Student Handout D: Film module Screening Guide and instruct students to take notes during the screening using the worksheet as a guide. Students may also need a copy of the Maternal Mortality Glossary for reference while viewing the video.
Variation: To save paper, project or write questions from Student Handout D: Film module Screening Guide on the board and review briefly before viewing the film module.
POST-SCREENING ACTIVITY: MATERNAL MORTALITY CASE STUDIES
Class Time: 45-50 minutes
You will need: Student Handout E: Maternal Mortality Fact Sheet, Student Handout F: Maternal Mortality Case Study, Student Handout G: Case Study Action Plan, pens/pencils, whiteboard/blackboard, dry-erase markers/chalk
Goal: Students will discuss the film module and consider how their understanding of maternal mortality has evolved over the course of the lesson. They will then work in groups to examine the maternal mortality crisis through the lens of three case studies and develop an action plan to improve maternal health for women in that community. Finally, they will demonstrate their understanding of the issue by working in groups to research the status of maternal healthcare in their community and develop an outreach and/or education campaign to raise awareness and advance the cause of maternal health.
Part 1: Discussion Questions (5-10 minutes):
- Begin by discussing Maternal Mortality in Somaliland film module and ask volunteers to share their notes and quotes from the screening guide. Use some or all the following questions to guide the class discussion:
- Maternal health and maternal mortality are global issues. Why did the filmmakers choose to focus on the situation in Somaliland?
- What are the dangers that pregnant women face in Somaliland?
- What did Edna Adan and Nicholas Kristof describe as the barriers to care?
- Edna said the pregnant woman died of a treatable condition. Why did she die? What was the name of the condition? What other factors contributed to her death?
- Edna said she is waging a war. What does she mean by this? With whom or what do you think she is at war?
- What strategies is Edna’s hospital using to address the problem? What have been some of the outcomes?
- Why do you think Edna has focused her attention on training 1,000 midwives rather than trying to establish more hospitals around the country? What do you think the benefits and challenges of each approach would be?
- Edna is from Somaliland. How important is that fact to the success of her project? In what ways (if any) would the impact of the hospital in the community have been different if an international organization or a foreign individual established it?
- When reporting on the maternal mortality crisis, Nicholas Kristof has said: “The reason for the gap [in maternal healthcare] is not that we don’t know how to save lives of women in poor countries. It’s simply that poor, uneducated women in Africa and Asia have never been a priority either in their own countries or to donor nations.” What do you think he means by this? Do you agree with this statement? Based on what you saw in the film, why do you think poverty and lack of education make women more vulnerable to illness or death during pregnancy and labor?
- When discussing the maternal mortality crisis, the former UN Deputy General Asha-Rose Migiro asked the question: “Would the world stand by if it were men who were dying just for completing their reproductive functions?” What are your thoughts? What role do you think gender-based discrimination plays in the global maternal health crisis?
- The United States spends more on healthcare than any other country, but as mentioned earlier, its record on maternal health and mortality pales compared to many other nations. Why do you think that is? Do you think there are any parallels between the challenges women face in Somaliland and the United States? Why or why not?
- When Edna talked about the history of the hospital, she said, “the world built this hospital.” What did she mean by this? Do wealthy countries have a responsibility to help poorer countries improve their maternal health care? Why or why not? What more could or should the United States do to improve maternal health worldwide?
- Do you think quality maternal healthcare is a right or a privilege? Explain. Do you think it is a human right?
Part 2: Fact Sheet and Review (10 minutes):
- Distribute the Student Handout E: Maternal Mortality Fact Sheet
- Ask students to work in pairs to review the fact sheet and consider how its information and the film compare to the results of the prescreening brainstorming activity. The class will discuss briefly and record observations, questions, and notes on the board.
Part 3: Maternal Health Case Studies (30 minutes):
- Explain to students that they will examine the maternal mortality crisis through the lens of one of three case studies. They will work with their group to identify the primary barriers to care for each case and to develop an action plan that could help women in a similar situation.
- Divide the class into groups of three to five students and give each group one of the three case study handouts to review from Student Handout F: Maternal Mortality Case Study.
- Have each student group review its case study and complete the Student Handout G: Case Study Action Plan worksheet by identifying the challenges that each woman and her family faced, discussing the barriers to care and developing an action plan that could help women in a similar situation.
- When the handouts are completed, each group will present their action plan to the class and receive feedback.
- Variation: Each group receives the same case study, and after preparing their plans of action, the groups will share and compare their results.
- The activity should conclude with a discussion of what they have discovered through the lesson and the film module viewing. Have students to revisit the question: “Why does maternal mortality matter to me?” and discuss if and how the film and activities have affected their attitudes and perceptions.
Assignment 1. Journal Entry or Essay:
Have your students respond to the following questions as a journal entry or essay:
If the women in your community faced the same healthcare challenges as described in the film module and case studies, what impact do you think it would have on the community as a whole?
- How would you improve the situation in your community?
- Who would you work with?
- What role would women and girls play in bringing about change?
- What role should men and boys in the community play?
- What outcomes would you hope to achieve?
Assignment 2. Community Action:
Have students work in groups to research the quality and availability of healthcare for women in their community and the impact such access (or lack of access) has on families and the broader population. Students should then select an area of care in need of improvement and develop an outreach and/or education campaign to raise awareness and contribute to advancing the cause of maternal health.
- Groups should identify each of the following for their issue:
- What is the challenge?
- What are the barriers to care?
- What social, political, economic, and cultural factors are contributing to the issue?
- What strategies have been tried and what has been most successful?
- How would you improve the situation?
- When developing their campaigns, groups should identify their target audiences. For example, how would you frame your outreach campaign to boys and men in the community?
- Students should connect directly with existing community organizations and maternal health advocates, and identify where improvements, resources, outreach, and volunteers are needed.
- Groups can also reach out to local elected officials to better understand if and how maternal health is being addressed. This website can help students identify and contact their local officials.
- If time and resources are available, the groups can work together to organize a community event such as a walk, a block party, or a school assembly to help raise awareness of the needs of women in their area, attract volunteers, and connect underserved women with services and organizations that can offer support.
- Each group should document the process of researching and developing their Community Action Campaign using photography, digital video, audio recording, and through project journals.
- Upon completion of their assignment, each group should present a Multi-Media Project Report. Students can explore the following free online tools to create dynamic and interactive multi-media presentations:
Activity 1: Global Village: Maternal Health PSA
Have students work in groups to further examine the global maternal health divide and develop a Public Service Announcement (PSA) to raise awareness about the issue. Using the techniques and style of Half The Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide as a guide, each group should illustrate the global issue through the lens of one community or country’s struggle with maternal health and mortality.
- When researching their topic, groups should identify the challenges, barriers to care, contributing factors, and strategies that have had a positive impact.
- Students can use the following websites for instruction and for samples of Public Service Announcements (PSAs):
- The PSAs can be developed by sourcing fair-use video and photographs from the Internet along with interviews and research-based voiceovers. Free online digital video and audio production resources can be found at these sites:
Activity 2: Cultural Practices and Women’s Health: Female Genital Mutilation
Note to teachers: Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide: Maternal Mortality takes a candid look at the practice of female genital mutilation and its impact on the individual women and girls affected. This topic may be unsuitable for some audiences, and students and their parents/guardians (where appropriate) should receive advance notice and preparation regarding lessons and materials. Please view and read all resources before sharing with your students.
Female genital mutilation (also known as female circumcision or genital cutting) directly affects women and girls’ reproductive and maternal health, and can have grave consequences during childbirth. Female genital mutilation (FMG) involves the removal of part or all of the external genitalia, and in its most severe form, the procedure entails removal of all genitalia and stitches to leave a small opening for urination, intercourse, and menstruation.
It is primarily practiced in African countries on the pretext of cultural and religious tradition or hygiene, and an estimated 135 million girls and women living today have undergone FGM with consequences ranging from infection (including HIV), to sterility. Others have died. Another two million girls are at risk each year. In the United States, where the practice is illegal, thousands of women and girls survive FGM each year. FGM practitioners, often referred to as “cutters,” are predominantly women. As Edna describes in the film, it is often the adult women in the family and community (mothers, grandmothers, community matriarchs) who instigate and facilitate the cutting of girls.
- Screen the complete Maternal Mortality segment from the documentary Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide and have students research the issue of FGM and its relationship to social, cultural, religious, and traditional attitudes towards women and their perceived status in the home and community.
- Because FGM is a highly controversial topic, bound up in tradition, religious beliefs, and cultural identity, there has been a weak response from the international community. In the film, Sheryl WuDunn says: “When there is a practice that is so offensive, it is OK to say ‘this is wrong’.” Have students discuss Sheryl’s comment and whether or not they agree. If they do agree, what responsibility or role do we have to address this issue?
- Although performing FGM is illegal in the United States, it affects thousands of American girls each year. Ask students if they think parents have the right to raise their children in their cultural traditions even when they conflict with the law. Have students read the 2010 New York Times article Group Backs Ritual ‘Nick’ as Female Circumcision Option by Pam Belluck. What impact do they think the ceremonial “nick” suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics would have on the curtailing or increasing the practice of FGM? Is this an acceptable alternative? Why or why not?
- Have students consider the role women play in imposing the practice on the next generation, using the film and particularly Edna’s story of her own circumcision as foundations for discussion. What factors motivate women to participate in perpetuating FGM? What are the barriers to eliminating the practice entirely? How can programs like the midwife training at Edna’s hospital contribute to curtailing the practice?
- Using their research and discussions as support, have students create a series of dialogues between the women and men whose lives are bound up with the practice of FGM. Each character should lay out the basis of their argument, and examples could include: a mother and daughter debating whether the daughter should get cut; a midwife from Edna’s hospital trying to persuade a cutter to discontinue her practice; a mother who does not want to cut her daughter making her argument to her husband or her own mother, etc.
- Students can develop their dialogues in groups or individually, and the dialogues could be performed for the class and/or recorded and edited into a video or audio presentation.
- The following websites provide additional information and resources on FGM:
Activity 3: Family Planning, Maternal Health, and the Birth Control Debate
Family planning has been internationally recognized as a key factor in reducing maternal mortality, improving mother and child health, and helping to break the cycle of poverty. Research shows that if women have only the number of pregnancies they want, at the intervals they want, maternal mortality would drop by about one-third. Yet a national and international debates continue to rage about which forms of family planning are acceptable, to what degree women’s reproductive options should be supported by government programs and employer-based insurance, and if contraception itself is ethical.
- Ask students if they are familiar with the current national debate regarding birth control. What do they know about the debate? What are the main points of those who oppose healthcare coverage for birth control? What are the main points of those supporting it?
- Use the lesson plan developed by The New York Times’ The Learning Network to guide students through researching and examining the debate.
- Following their research, have students engage in a formal debate about the issue. Education World offers a selection of debate resources that provide guidelines and rules for classroom debates.
Activity 4: Too Young to Wed: The Secret World of Child Brides
Child marriage contributes greatly to adolescent maternal mortality rates. Throughout the world, more than 51 million girls below the age of 18 are currently married, and over the next decade, an estimated 100 million more girls will become child brides despite laws and international agreements that forbid the practice. Studies show that adolescents ages 15 through 19 are twice as likely to die during pregnancy or childbirth as those over age 20, and girls under age 15 are five times more likely to die. Child brides also face higher risk for sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS. In Pakistan, child marriage is the major cause of the high maternal mortality ratio of 1 death in 362.
Over an eight-year period, journalist Stephanie Sinclair investigated the issue of child marriage in India, Yemen, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Ethiopia. Have students view her multimedia presentation featured in the Pulitzer Center, Too Young to Wed, produced in association with National Geographic, that synthesizes her body of work into a call to action. Have them examine the roots of and contributing factors that lead to child marriage and the consequences that young girls face who are married too soon, including physical and emotional health, education, ability to care and provide for her children, and the connection of this practice to the cycle of poverty.
Activity 5: Millennium Development Goals: Empowering Women Empowers the World
In September 2000, the United Nations signed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with the aim of halving the number of people living in poverty, reducing maternal and child mortality, fighting disease, and improving social and economic conditions in the world's poorest countries by 2015. Have your class screen the complete series of Half The Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide and examine the connection between the issues addressed in the documentary and the MDG campaign’s focus on women. Have them consider how and why improving rights and resources for women and girls is considered key to eradicating global poverty.
- Divide the class into eight groups, assign each an MDG, and instruct the groups develop a “We Are the Goal” presentation, which should include the following:
- A summary of the MDG and the campaign’s strategies for improving social and economic conditions for women
- Information on the public perception and understanding of the MDGs. (Students can investigate the public’s knowledge and understanding of the MDG campaign by recording “person-on-the-street” interviews and include the footage in the presentation.)
- Examples of specific programs that have been implemented and their impact to date
- How the campaign relates to issues in the students’ own communities
- An action plan for the group and their school community to contribute to the MDG campaign
- The presentations should be multi-media, and can include photo essays, video footage, audio clips, animations, and infographics using the following websites as resources:
- Information and resources for research on the MDGs can be found at:
N. Kristof, S. WuDunn, Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide, New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2009
Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide: Filmed in 10 countries, the documentary follows Nicholas Kristof, Sheryl WuDunn, and celebrity activists America Ferrera, Diane Lane, Eva Mendes, Meg Ryan, Gabrielle Union, and Olivia Wilde on a journey to tell the stories of inspiring, courageous individuals. Across the globe, oppression is being confronted, and real meaningful solutions are being fashioned through health care, education, and economic empowerment for women and girls. The linked problems of sex trafficking and forced prostitution, gender-based violence, and maternal mortality — which needlessly claims one woman every 90 seconds — present to us the single most vital opportunity of our time: the opportunity to make a change. All over the world, women are seizing this opportunity. Visit the website at halftheskymovement.org.
Women and Girls Lead Film Series: Women and Girls Lead offers a collection of films by prominent independent filmmakers. These films focus on women who are working to transform their lives, their communities, and the world. Visit the website to learn more about the films and explore our diverse catalogue of educator resources, lesson plans, and film modules. See womenandgirlslead.org for more details.
halftheskymovement.org: The official website for the Half The Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity For Women Worldwide film, book and movement.
Edna Adan University Hospital: Located in Somaliland, the Edna Adan Hospital provides maternity and general medical services and works to train fully qualified healthcare professionals and midwives to work throughout the country.
Every Mother Counts: an advocacy and mobilization campaign to increase education and support for maternal mortality reduction globally.
CARE International: An organization fighting poverty and injustice in more than 70 countries around the world and helping 65 million people each year to find routes out of poverty.
White Ribbon Alliance: An international coalition to ensure that pregnancy and childbirth are safe for all women and newborns in every country around the world.
The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA): An organization that works through local partnerships to give women tools to improve their lives, families, and communities. CEDPA’s programs increase educational opportunities for girls, ensure access to lifesaving reproductive health and HIV/AIDS information and services, and strengthen good governance and women’s leadership in their nations.
Partnership for Maternal, Newborn Child Health: A partnership to support the global health community to work successfully towards achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5.
Save the Children: An organization that works to save and improve children’s lives in more than 50 countries worldwide.
Maternal Mortality in Somaliland